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“首届国际社会学论坛”在西班牙巴塞罗那举行
——首届国际社会学论坛纪要

(2008年9月18)
马惠娣

 

  由国际社会学协会(联合国教科文组织所属的机构,成立于1947年)主办,巴塞罗那市政府和巴塞罗那社会学协会协办,巴塞罗那大学承办的“首届国际社会学论坛”于2008年9月5-8日在西班牙巴塞罗那举行。来自世界数十个国家的约2000名代表出席了会议。
  开幕式上,国际社会学协会主席米希尔·维伟奥卡、该协会研究与论坛组委会副主席奥特罗·罗德芮格、西班牙社会学联合会主席埃米奥·拉默·埃斯伯纳撒、西班牙加泰罗尼亚社会学协会主席奥瑞尔·胡姆斯先后致辞。
  他们认为:目前人类社会所处的时代有两大特点:一是全球一体化的趋势愈来愈强,二是社会变革的步伐愈来愈快。这给社会学学者的观察视角和研究领域提出了许多新课题,同时也带来新挑战。历来,社会学学者虽然不能直接参与各种重大社会决策,但是却都以自己不同的学术研究方法参与社会学的理论建构与社会实践,用他们的深思熟虑和远见卓识影响社会的发展。社会学尤其以开放性、跨学科性、包容性产生的学科魅力吸引了公共的参与与辩论,形成了社会学在未来发展的基础。此次会议正是在这一学科背景下,吸引了世界各国的学术精英参与其中。他们希望社会学不再是一种少数派的深奥语言,而是文化大家庭中的一员。几位致辞者共同祝愿社会学研究者仍一如既往地以理性与智慧,为社会、为营造人类美好的生活环境做出更多的努力,取得丰硕的学术成果。
  巴塞罗那市长出席闭幕式,并在会上致闭幕词。

  本次会议主题是:“社会学研究论坛与公共辩论”,围绕“全球一体化”和“社会转型”做不同方面的讨论。
  国际社会学协会拥有40余个不同学科的研究委员会,每个研究委员会都有各自的讨论热点,比如:社会变化与社会问题,公共话题与科学家的社会实践,志愿者与老年福利,以生态经济学为基础的知识评价,移民的社会现象,妇女与社会,青少年与社会,科学与社会,技术与社会等数百个议题在这次论坛中被讨论与论辨。
  尤为引人注意的是,有多个研究成果是关注休闲问题的。这个议题不仅是休闲研究委员会的主打题目,而且像青年研究委员会、教育研究委员会、旅游研究委员会等等都选择了休闲这一话题。
  休闲研究委员会参与本次论坛与辩论的主题是“转型社会与休闲”,入选的论文有百十余篇,涉及的题目有:
    “家庭与休闲之间互补性思考”
    “休闲与社会转型——后共产主义时代为例”
    “休闲社会的生活”
    “游憩组织与提升大学生健康水平”
    “休闲与教育”、“创造性休闲活动的积极影响”
    “休闲与感觉良好的社会”
    “休闲、健康和福利”
    “年轻家庭的健康、福利与休闲”
    “工作和个人生活的平衡——休闲的存在”
    “作为工作的休闲——休闲管理概念”
    “休闲在社会空间中的分离”
    “休闲能促进身心的融合”
    “休闲与精神营养”
    “休闲的伦理与法律问题”
    “游戏运动与性别”
    “性别与休闲”
    “游憩与休闲的社会市场”
    “城市公共休闲空间与休闲空间”
    “休闲与城市化”
    “运动与休闲”
    “转型社会:对传统休闲价值的回望”
    “文化与休闲政策”
    “全球一体化中的休闲与旅游”
    “世界视野内的休闲与旅游批判”
    “年轻人严肃旅游与绿色动机承诺的效果”
    “休闲与老龄化社会”
    “老年人时间利用模式”
    “运动科学视野内科学技术的社会学分析”
    “青年文化与消费者技术”
    “儿童与休闲”
    “青年、休闲与生活方式”
    “作为日常用品的休闲”
    “休闲时光中的活动与青年在田园中的互动”
    “传媒视角中的生活周期:休闲产业与动态的诉求”
    “欧洲疯狂足球青年的本质、趋势及心理学的实践”
    “城市邻里间的儿童休闲行为”
    “城市规划影响青少年休闲参与行为”
    “青少年中休闲伙伴选择的比较研究”
  上述是这次会议休闲研究委员会录取的会议论文的一部分题目。其它委员会的部分论文题目附后。因为各组的讨论都同时进行,有些相关的讨论便无法听到。

此次休闲问题讨论的特点是:

  第一,参与此次会议的代表以欧洲代表为主,北美学者次之,亚洲学者主要来自印度,中国学者(从会议文集中看)只有6-7人,包括大陆、香港、台湾、留学美国。
  第二,论文的国际视野较强,一般都突出了“全球一体化”与“社会转型”这两大时代特点。
  第三,欧洲学者的研究视野突出了休闲学科的本质——更注重人文关怀的选题与案例分析。
  第四,学术的开放性,一是论文本身所讨论的问题的多样性;二是会议方式开放。所有小组讨论都在巴塞罗那大学的各校区的教室中进行,任何人都可以参与讨论。
  第五,儿童、青少年与休闲问题占了很大的比重。
  第六,文化的、心理的、行为方式的休闲研究更被关注。
  第七,研究方法与思路更新颖。
  第八,欧美国家学者的研究视野更开阔、观点更新颖、方法更先进、跨学科性更强。从听到的发言中能感受到欧美学者对休闲研究所具有的人文情怀和社会责任感。
  第九,印度社会学学者关注休闲研究领域的人比中国学者多,涉及的问题有现实意义。

本次会议的不足是:

  第一,由于不同的研究委员会和参会代表太多,所以会议安排很分散,加之都在不同的校区教室,而这些教室散落在巴塞罗那城区内的各个小巷中,找起来很费时。
  第二,此次论坛强调讨论与辩论,事实上,虽然不是所有人都安排发言,但为发言者提供20分钟的演讲,根本没有讨论与辩论的时间。
  第三,所有代表的住宿都是“各自为政”,代表之间会外的沟通、交流很有局限性。
笔者与刘耳教授合作完成的题目为:“社会转型:对中国传统休闲价值的回望”的论文在会上得到了交流。我们在论文中大致陈述了这样的思想:“在中国5000年漫长历史进程中,休闲作为一种亚文化形态,对传承儒家、道家、佛家文化传统,对塑造中国人的价值观和道德伦理,对提升人的品格教养、风度礼仪等方面,始终发挥着重要的作用。但是, 近一百多年来,伴随中国几次大的社会转型, 致使传统休闲价值被肢解的愈来愈凌乱。尤其自20世纪80年代以来,中国进入了现代化的转型期——经济的迅猛发展,产业格局的重大改组,文化形态的多样化、多元化、多层化,生活方式中的现代化、时尚化、西方化等诸多因素的融入,休闲价值的精髓也愈来愈多地被物质主义所浸染。加剧了传统休闲价值在当代的解构与重构。正是在这一背景下,我们呼唤人们,回望休闲文化传统的底蕴与价值,希冀为可持续发展与和谐社会的各种期许寻找新思路。”此文受到《世界休闲杂志》主编罗伯茨教授的青睐,与笔者做了交流并希望准予发表。
  北京旅游学院宁则群、罗震鹏两位教授与之共同参加会议,并在会上交流了他们的论文。

  笔者作为该委员会的委员,参与了委员会的工作讨论。应本委员会主席之邀,在工作会议上陈述了关于2009年在中国举办国际社会学协会休闲研究委员会第一届学术研讨会的具体设想。会议主题、时间、地点、规模、组织委员会等都在进一步的磋商中。
  笔者在会议期间,还就组织翻译第三套“休闲研究译丛”与罗伯茨、苏珊·萧等人进行了沟通,请他们推荐近年来欧洲学者的代表著。值得欣慰的是我们已经翻译的十本书几乎都在他们推荐的范围内。我告诉他们,中国学者将从更广阔的视野内和不同的专业领域内采撷、吸收、借鉴西方学者的研究成果。
  会议期间,笔者考察了巴塞罗那作为欧洲休闲度假胜地,特别是海滨休闲度假的发展轨迹与成功模式的可资借鉴之处。会后,笔者还游历了地中海沿岸的国家与城市,对休闲与人、社会、自然的关系做了进一步的思考;对如何休闲度假、如何发展休闲经济有了切身体验和直接感受;对构建可持续发展与和谐社会产生了新思路。
  尽管,笔者刚一到达巴塞罗那便被自己的疏忽将装有最重要的证件、物品的背包(含护照、身份证、三张信用卡、一张保险卡、旅行支票、现金、U盘、照相机、摄像机、翻译器)遗忘在从机场到市区的大巴车上。幸运的是,第二天早上背包被送回来了,里边还有护照和旅行支票。如果能把U盘也退给我就好了,因为那里有我制作的精美的PPT文件。为了做好这个PPT我拍了许多照片,包括北京奥运会、奥运会场馆、市民休闲生活、北京公园等多幅照片。遗憾,我的演讲没有我的PPT。

附录部分听会记录

08.sep.2008
Location:URL A201

Children , youth and leisure aspiration
By: Taija Tdoren
Rethinking young people’s leisure in the context of the Finnish welfare state.
The ideal of AUTONOMY frames the ethos if leisure organizers.
Ethnic hierarchies
Value& Meaning of leisure?
An idle time? A risky business? A lonely space? A sphere for fun and emotional and cultural exploration? A possibility for societal( civic) engagement? Instrumental value?
Methological issues: how to catch ‘alternative knowledge’ on leisure, when ‘nothing’ is happening?
Youth lifestyle, leisure conditions, and practices in daily life.

By: Kleanthis Sirakoulis ( Greece)
Does city planning effect young people participation?
Leisure provision- design to attract young people- determinative of the lifestyle.
Mean of leisure time for youth: 37.41+/- 17.8 hours/ week.
Youngth has more free time:

  1. Economical reasons: no economical weight. E.g: relaxing, radio, DVD, computer games, all home base activities, which, does not require ‘spending’.
  2. Conclusion: lack of cultural and sport facilities is a result of urban mis-planning.

    High cost of living create dissatisfaction about quality of life.

By:Rashimi Jain
Glaobalisation–children less dependent.
More computer game/phone pack

  1. no longer communicate with other children, therefore becoming social incapable. Means of 4.1 hour leisure time per day, 2.1 hours study, 4.2 hours computer game.
  2. No time for other leisure activities.
  3. More competitive.
  4. 18% pornographic website in Japur. Families and parents responsible for this results.
  5. All leisure industry target children: leisure is created, child is lost.

By: Ken Roberts
Geogeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan.
Personal leisure careers:

  1. how to identify and measure them?
  2. What do we find?
  3. What value is added vis-à-vis evidence cross sectional life stage?

Consideration: 31-37 years old, education background, labour market, housing, family relationship, leisure.
Differences widen by: social class and place. NOT by: gender or pace of family careers( how early people get married and have kids)
Value added: - life stage developmental process, not macro-historical trends, drive change in leisure. From 1995, GDP has grown up more than 10% per year,.

  1. change driven by age not by historical changes
  2. same pattern of change in all social group.
  3. Spurious cross- sectional relationship.
  4. Age group 16-30, responsible of motherhood, keep out women from leisure/sports.
  5. Higher education—higher sports participation.

Portuguese internet using

  1. Youngsters use internet mainly for educational purpose and entertainment .(games, communication, web surfing). E.g: students
  2. older and more qualified users use the internet for a cast and frequently simultaneous array of activities: work, news, communication, shopping and leisure. E.g: professionals.

Constant communication: more than 30% in Portugal has/ use internet.

  1. Equilibrium between work and leisure. E.g: check personal email and chat with friends whilst working.
  2. Computer and internet have become ubiquitous tools; they are used at home, work, when people commute between them, on vocation, when traveling. Internet has become a fundamental thing in live for most people.

By: Dr. Ake Nilsen
Topic: Technology and masculinity in the context of scuba diving.
Technology as : - tool

  1. human action
  2. how to utilize and organize the world

How is technology perceived and managed?

  1. the practical knowledge
  2. embodiment
  3. trust
  4. rational approach

Discussion:

  1. risk-activity- irrational choice.
  2. Rational approach to technology- the second skin- legitimates the activity.
  3. Contradictory masculinity: irrational or rational? As in general, masculinity replaces the technology through his own physical build.

By: Alan Law
Topic: undesirable, unemployables, and social malingerers containing a sober ‘ leisure society’.
Welfare state behave as regulate the workplace.
Leisure identities: travelers, and alcoholics( in Australia)

  1. problems of idleness shift between historical epthchs erecting particular identities as objects and subjects of governance.
  2. Alcoholic: desire to get drunk, is this a lifestyle choice? Continuity record in bureaucratic record, therefore regulated.
  3. Main thrust of technique is trying material dependency to identities valorized via the use of ‘laziness’- hence a re-distribution issue.
  4. Linkage of drunkenness and laziness as a character position varies according to main ‘ moral contagion’- main problem.

Conclusion:

  1. intoxication an important site to locate the dysfunctional and illiberal will.
  2. Managing the dysfunctional will is an important way to prevent’ leisure society’ breaks that threaten the productive order.
  3. The non-rational or irresponsible are unwilling to accept the structure of the ‘work first then leisure’, relation by making their whole lives a descent into a state of pleasure within which liberal exchange relations find no hold.
  4. Society regulated the’ fun’ we have?

By: Frances Lobo
Topic: The social transformation of Australian leisure and emerge of participation.
4 kinds of time:
- Necessary time: greater in female. E.g: needs of grooming. Sleeping- female more than male: 8:30 Vs 8:32
- Contracted time ( i.e: work): study, work, education. Male dominated.
- Committed time: having children, set up house, volunteer. Women more dominated.
- Leisure time: parallel

By Susan Shaw
Only 17% of traditional family left in Canada.
New idea about being a ‘good parent’.
Responsibilities: children’s safety, health (both physical and psychological), achievement.

  1. Involvement in children’s daily life
  2. Emotion connection
  3. Particular responsibility: outdoor sports.

Intense motherhood: all aspects of children’s development.
Key issue: Conformity
Implication on leisure:

  1. control over children’s time: increase in organized activities for children
  2. increase in ‘purposive’ family leisure. Moral skills, lifestyle, for the sake of child’s development.

Questions to be ask:

  1. A devaluation of leisure?
  2. A loss of leisure?
  3. A melding of work and leisure?

 

Debate on The congress in China next year:
The conference has agreed and confirmed by the committees, a FORMAL REQUEST LETTER should be issued address to the ISA- leisure Research Committee.
Prof. Modi will be in charge of the invitation and socializing of the event. Should be expecting a 50-60 people from Modi side.
Issues still need to be solved:

  1. The date of the conference: Modi suggests early October but Ken Roberts think May or June will be better for academics.
  2. How much cost in terms of staying? Hotels? University guest house? How much does the conference committee cover?
  3. Should take the registration idea of ISA Barcelona forum, which means categories the registration groups. Different fees.
  4. The length of the conference.
  5. Need to ensure quality papers. Joint papers are welcomed. Also possibility of publishing afterwards.

  


 
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