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Warning of Coronavirus to Humans

Philosophical Essay on the Introspection and Saving Oneself

Ma Huidi

Center for Leisure Studies

Chinese National Academy of Arts

Beijing,China.

Abstract

This is a virus as the first-person article, to warn people and to push human reflection on their behaviour. Up to nowadays, the trend of COVID-19 is unclear, uncertain and unpredictable, while the direction of mankind is still in extreme confusion.

As a scholar, I am incapable of influencing decision-makers on the mode, goal and path of earth development in the future, but it does not mean that I will not retrospect and redeem myself and human nature. Why should man be above nature? Why are “powerful humans” so vulnerable to viruses? What causes humans to be so greedy? Is the updating knowledge-generating more and more inhumanity and irrationality? Rather than relying on science and technology to save a human being, it is better to enhance human nature; improve humans’ thoughts, morality and conducts, and curb cruelty to nature and disrespect to everything on earth. Only in this way is the best antidote for “self saving” and “saving others”.

 

I. Introduction

Early 2020 were started with a life-and-death fight between humans and "coronavirus". Unlike any other battlefield, people can only rely on 1,000 diameters electron microscope to spot the "appearance" of the "opponent" which is a new creature emerging with a "crown" and "in a posture of victory". People have not made clear the exact time, place and path of igniting the "war" even until now, but have been shocked in great panic by the invisible "opponent" and paid the unprecedented cost of lives and various losses.

Coronavirus is playing a leading role in stirring the centennial thorough change, a "black swan" flying from a variety of "uncertainties" and "instabilities" all of a sudden! The Human existence will have to accept the tremendous challenges. Why do humans suffer such disasters? How will it change the future of the mankind? Can humans defeat the virus with vaccines and new drugs? Where are the uncertain factors in the future of humans from? And also, individual introspection is needed to save conscience and soul. This is a virus as the first-person article, to warn people and to push human reflection on their behaviour.

Keywords: Virus, Warning to Humans, Causes of Suffering the Disaster, Future Uncertainties, Redeem oneself etc.

 

II. Warning of Coronavirus to Humans

Oh, humans! Humans, you created brilliant technologies and economies, but also made the earth a mess. Your souls have been set free in "material desire" and "control desire" and are dancing in riotous revelry. This is the root of suffering the disaster.

 

1. Why do humans suffer the disaster?

The disaster that humans are undergoing comes from the called “COVID-19” which is a new variant. To be honest, we had occupied the planet earlier before humans were born. Having gone through extreme conditions like scorching heat, frostiness or drought, we are still everywhere to date. Although you have invented all kinds of antibiotics or vaccines, the harm to us is very limited.

Our DNA takes up 8% of the DNA fragments in your human bodies, with one-tenth of oxygen taken by you from viruses. We generally stay in a dormant state, however, under special circumstances; we will revive, reorganize into active viruses, spread between different hosts, carry DNA fragments of some hosts by certain chance and then insert them into the gene of the next host. It cannot be denied that we are also cold-blooded killers, with such viruses as H1N1, Ebola, SARS and novel coronavirus making humans unprepared. Your scientists define us by granting us dual connotations of "destroy" and "creation". If you can properly understand the relationship between viruses and humans and cast off the position of anthropocentrism, we will be an indispensable creative power like all the other creatures on earth. (Virus Planet written by Carl Zimmer)

The seemingly unexpected "disaster" in 2020 is a "self-inflicted" result of humans’ deeds. Not far to say, only over the two decades from the Hendra virus in 1994 to the current "novel coronavirus", a variety of viruses have constantly sent an early warning to you and taken revenge. However, you scorn our existence, believe high technologies and advanced medicine will make us surrender, and look down upon all the beings on earth. You persist in your ways to damage nature with as much power as possible and even tread on all the territories on earth in the name of people’s benefit, better life, revival and sustainable development.

Anthropocene (refer to the latest state of the earth which, without an accurate initial year, may start from the 18th century when human activities exert influence on the earth system.) warns that human activities have imposed a deep impact on the earth as a whole and challenging the relations between nature and the mankind. Around 12% of the earth’s surface has been reclaimed for farming at the present. It is hard to predict the consequence possibly incurred by such a condition.

The excessive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest by humans has disturbed the evaporation and condensation cycles in some areas, sharply increasing the possibility of turning the areas into tropics. The temperature of the earth will rise, if the Amazon Rainforest loses its ability to absorb carbon dioxide.

More fatally, chemical fertilizers served in agriculture causes large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus to flow into the local environment. People collect about 120 million tons of nitrogen from the air each year and transform them into "active" forms helpful for fertilizers. In addition, humans extract 20 million tons of phosphorus from underground every year. Under the two circumstances, besides entering into biological groups, a majority of these materials will follow rivers into the sea, rapidly enlarging the death zone in the ocean. As estimated by the UN, there are 47 thousand pieces of plastic items per square mile in the earth’s ocean, and about 60 billion tons of plastic items were produced by the whole world. At a high dose, these chemicals may disturb animals’ hormonal systems, induce cancer and change the mode of reproduction. (Refer to the entry of "Anthropocene" in Encyclopedia) It is regretful that you evolve the warning into " unbridled to all " -- as conceited as being almighty. Look, the earth is riddled with the fast advancement of urbanization.

Like a forest, concrete architectures stand tall and dense. What’s more, rushing cities seem like speedy operating machines, where people have lost the perception of picturesque scenery aroused delight, and become complete auxiliaries pursuing efficiency and function of the social "machine". The rapid swelling of the urban population and scale brought about a sense of loss to the fun of "wild nature" and damaged the peace and tranquility of the living environment.

While you are immersed in the triumph over nature, you are equally suffering from glacial and snow ablation and sea-level rise caused by "global warming". The incidence and death rate of heart disease and respiratory system disease is surging; water pollution, dirty air and soil hardening deteriorate your living environment; climate zone move and forest damage accelerate species extinction. In the process, different animal species are forced to go closer to each other, causing disease infection from one kind of animal to another, while the second kind of animal is possibly forced to close contact and pass the disease to humans. Tell you: these massive human pandemics are all caused by viruses from animal hosts through crossspecies infection, and coronavirus is activated by some new variant.

Data shows that when billions of people are "restricted" at home during the pandemic,

the earth gets a chance of breathing: carbon dioxide emission falls by 25%, industrial activities decrease by 15-40%, and coal consumption of power plants is reduced by 36%. The earth shake starts alleviating -- the earthquake background noise in Brussels is lessened by 30-50%; the noise level of London Gatwick Airport falls obviously; earthquake noise in Paris decreased significantly... The earth recovers pulse and breath after you quiet down (www.sc-rh.com/kjjj/20200414/40...2020-04-07

Since your behaviours have infringed on the living space of so many animals and species on earth, Isn't that what you deserved for the disaster you are suffering? 2. Humans need nature and cannot live without nature. Why cannot humans live without nature? This looks like a quite childish question. However, your humans are so childish. You have forgotten you are one of nature, even "your flesh, blood and brain belong to and exist in nature" (Engels). But for a long, you set yourself up over nature. Leave yourself away from the parent of survival. With the skin gone, to what can the hair attach it?

What would humans be like if they get away from nature? First of all, you become an “aberration" of nature, gradually encroaching on sunshine and rains, mountains and rivers, plains and hills, forests and woods, plants, fishes and insects to fight against your invasion and regard you as enemies. The mother of nature has to lesson your disrespect by sending uprising temperatures, violent storms, earthquakes and hurricanes, mountain forest fires, boundless locusts and epidemics. Secondly, when you get away from nature, so do you leave the place to entrust your soul, for humans, in fact, are kind of biosome on earth, coming from nature and growing in nature. "Living with nature" is not only the concept of survival, production and life, but also an iron law for formulating public policies, building cities and improving the living environment. However, nowadays, humans are separating from nature, with their minds and body no resting place. "nature-deficit disorder" makes your bodies, minds and souls undergo the torture of loneliness, anxiety and testiness, to make all kinds of rude and illusive decisions. Thirdly, those mannered artificial gardens that you are engaged in with the name of beautifying the environment are twisted gardening aesthetics and an offence to nature for they isolate different plants from living in a company. They eliminate the

simplicity of nature and the power of original lives, apart from wasting large volumes of labour design and original nature.

Data shows that in recent 200 years, half of forests on earth have disappeared and forests are decreasing at the rate of one hectare per second; half of wetland and onethird of mangrove forests vanished; 90% of predatory fishes around the world died out; 75% of sea fishing grounds are reducing output; the species extinction speed is 1,000 times faster than normal speed! These figures are still increasing. You dig tomb for yourselves in the way of plundering nature! (Our Way Out by Marq De Villiers)

Man is a rational creature; only humans can develop a complex knowledge system, with all the learning and technologies, including philosophy, social science, math, engineering, computer, spaceflight and medicine, established on the foundation of reasonable theories and research law. However, you are now blinded by the love of gain! Being irrational, illegal and immoral, you are on the way to ruining yourselves.

The beauty of the world lies in the earth’s original and innate biodiversity and their mutual dependence. It seems that you have indicated some "sincerity" by drafting Convention on Biological Diversity, even with 188 signatory states. According to your convention, "natural reserves" and "national parks" were set up in the wild one after another. However, you have ignored a fact -- biodiversity is not created or set up by humans, but the essence of nature which has been formed along with the birth of life on earth. What you are doing neglects the relationship of the interdependence of biodiversity, taking the coexistence of people and various animals and plants as an option rather than a necessity.

The original appearance of the earth, as is called "wildness", is an unchanged natural pattern and template of healthy land. Wildness also declares to you the practices of free spirit and simple life. But your spiritual homeland is becoming more and more desolate, meaning that you have set free your souls and committed all manners of crimes in a spirit-absent world, while your lifestyle is more and more extravagant and luxurious, meaning that your invasion and damage to the earth is further intensified.

  For a long time, humans are enthusiastic about constructing cities and metropolitan regions, following the inertia to draw extremely attractive prospects for future cities -- "smart city", "internet of everything", "knowledge society", "consumption, entertainment and social contact within doors" and "long-life health service" etc., using powerful technologies to wrap besieged cities of "concrete forest". That is to partition people’s essential space for "biological growth" and "spiritual growth" in a posture of citizens full of greed and arrogance.

The harm of "concrete forest" besieged cities and separation from nature to humans is self-evident -- as if treating prisoners and wildlife. Your spiritual system and nerve system will be influenced first and then your overall physical and mental health. "Nature deficiency" (that is the isolation of modern people from nature and ignorance of nature) has become a common phenomenon, which will directly lead to a series of behavioral, spiritual and psychological problems in people; and the indirect consequence already takes on -- nature started taking strong revenge on humans and a variety of creatures and animals which have equal living rights as humans launched crucial attacks against humans due to their offence.

Oh, humans, you should not speak to other creatures in imperious gestures from the perspective of humans, or you will still adhere to "anthropocentrism".

3. Humans will ruin the future in all uncertainties.

The damage to the earth incurred by humans cannot be repaired in short term. What’s more, you have never stopped your "marching" steps. You assumed many uncertainties for your future -- relative to employment and labour-capital relationship, or changes in life field, such as food supply, housing, health, welfare system, family plan, leisure & holidays, way of travel, social contact and personal relations etc.

Firstly, since humans cannot eradicate us at all in a short period, you will be under alternate attacks from virus variants of all levels no matter in future or longer. You may find that vaccines temporally terminate the revenge on you. However, we also tell you with pride: we will alter form, hiding length, toxic power and action track to trigger a larger-scale attacks. At present, it is too optimistic and confident for people tortured by the pandemic to pin hopes on the development and inoculation of a "vaccine"! Humans must realize that the virus resurgence power is strong.

Secondly, human survival is likely to enter into such a pattern: 1. The virus transmission will be in the "migratory bird mode" back and forth between the northern and southern hemispheres. 2. "Airline suspension", "national lockdown", "lockdown of the city" and "hibernation" will become normal. 3. Your quality of survival and life will decline dramatically. 4. Nature will, directly or indirectly, eliminate more people in its way, and destroy your inventions. 5. Global trade and investment, as well as massive staff turnover and travel in the future, will have to cease or be restrained. 6. A large number of workforces will not be able to get normal employment, losing the basis for human survival and "growth". 7. Virus epidemics will cause many people to be in anxiety and depression, and their minds and hearts will be distorted. 8. Leisure life will be replaced by "forced idleness", and people’s state will be of "forced stillness" and inactivity.

Thirdly, the virus pandemic will usher in the age of loneliness. Human beings are sociable, which is an important part of "humanization" and "socialization". Socialization is for mutual assistance, emotional exchange, friendship transmission, benefit-sharing, joint responsibility, and hardship conquering with united efforts. The feature of sociobiology makes you fear loneliness, but the reality of the epidemic is that each of you is "in loneliness". Billions of people around the world are now living in isolation, which not only increases your sense of loneliness but also reinforces your need for social contact. Nevertheless, you have to be "grounded" in a corner at present, and your mood has become irritable and depressed.

The danger of loneliness may result in losing oneself, judgment decline and weakening of thinking ability etc. If humans wholly fall into "loneliness", for example, alienation between countries, mutual defaming of different populations and struggles between man and man, these are more terrible than individual "loneliness", for they will cause overall messy mind, decision failure, head over heels and collective memory loss, making you go further and further on the wrong path. You are splitting and tearing yourself. The loneliness of human nature, as a "secondary disaster", will be generalized, normalized and persistent. You will ruin all the freedom, democracy, charity, civil rights and empowerment gained through the longtime struggle in loneliness.

Fourthly, there are many worries about the human prospects: on the one hand, people will increasingly lose inner beliefs and real life. Your pursuit of money and mercantilism will intensify the loss of human nature, which leads to the prevalence of money worship. Your feeling of gain and sense of happiness comes from the enjoyment in the process of material consumption, while the mental "growth" is turning into the capture of technological rights. "Material desire" and "material slavery" are the current portrayals of you, which aggravate both the ecological crisis and the crisis of your spiritual homeland. How far will you go, human beings, in the "double crisis"? On the other hand, the capital society only regards individuals as conditioned-reflex animals, which makes your social class, social system and social organization more and more dependent on financial capital, and aggravates the phenomenon of inequality, disharmony and inequality.

Fifthly, Human beings are different from other creatures, as you have a thinking brain. You believe that your power is "invincible" and that "science and technology can do everything". However, you have gone astray with your own development goals and "self-growth." It is said that: "The pandemic, which paralyzed the world in several weeks, it has exposed the extraordinary and shocking weaknesses of the current 'development mode'...The epidemic proves that such development mode has been condemned to death, along with mankind" (by Stigler). You are certain to scoff at that judgment.

Sixth, we note that there is a general lack of willingness to repent: the actions related to work resumption, economic restart, human well-being, catching up with GDP and high consumption etc. are still based on the plunder of nature, still add insult to the overloaded earth and still spare no efforts to squeeze and shrink our living space. You are above nature and all things on earth, treating nature as a "faucet" of inexhaustible resources and a "sewage pool" of wastes; politicians, financial capitalists and business owners use "sustainable development" and "people's well-being" as "legitimate reasons" to destroy nature in an imposing manner.

Those ancients knew that a wren builds its net only on one tree branch, and a mole drink but one belly. Emperors in history also knew that "You cannot become king before you create and maintain a pleasant ecological environment with mountains, lakes and forests." Whereas now you have forgotten your ancestors’ words, the suffering from "the wrath of heaven" (refer to punishments of nature, mostly flood, drought, landslide, earthquake and tsunamis etc. which cause great losses to people and properties. Kind of folk belief) is within the bounds of reason.

Seventh, humans become a part of the production machine with step-by-step and cyclic systems, and the mechanical work has made them become "mechanical men". Leisure time is taken in an "unrestrained daze", which will bring about mass "homogenized terror". In the context of globalization, "mortal amusement" is controlling your culture, reading, and way of entertainment. It can be seen everywhere that: time is being torn to pieces, life is "in a mess", and the spirit world is limited to "a cup of soup". Free time is no longer an intangible resource to enrich life, leisure is no longer an approach to God, and labour has become “look like animal service ".

Eighth, everyone is immersed in busy work. With "996" (working from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., 6 days a week), "white plus dark" (working from dawn to night), "five plus two" (working five days a week, plus two days at the weekend), "busy" has become collective social consciousness. "Busy" means "loss of mind" or "loss of life". Lack of "mind" will make people's thinking, judgment and behaviour become worse: busy people are easy to be confused and addled; busy people will get irritated easily and cannot keep peace-minded. When people are busy, they tend to be superficial, unable to study problems, and unable to think calmly. When people are busy, they tend to focus only the moment and just do not set their sights high enough.

Ninth, you place your hopes on your inventions, such as the "internet of everything", "smart city", "cloud computing", and "smart people", but never forget the old adage that you are too smart to be smart, and you may drop a rock on your own feet when you pick up it. Technology is a "double-edged sword" that can either carry something or overturn it. Television is a "painkiller", a companion to the lonely and a thief of time. Mobile phones are becoming the "poison" sucked by people, with people's sights drowned in mixed messages. Various dazzling games cost time and make time slip away silently. The seemingly free interconnection is entering a new cage. The human soul is devoured, and people with no soul are likely walking dead. Is this the pursuit and ultimate destination of human beings?

4. How long can vaccines save you?

From the perspective of biology, the current "pandemic" is like a "perfect masterpiece", as delicate and intricate as a great symphonic poem. Your scientists note: we can freely travel through the cells of human bodies, making your lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, brain, immune system, excretory system, and reproductive system hit targets. When launching an attack, we can easily elude the chase of medicine until die together with hosts.

You combat us usually by producing specific vaccines against us. It is said that their scientists are making such predictions: the novel coronavirus could be with humans until 2025 no matter whether vaccines can be made or not. So, could people get rid of novel coronavirus after 2025?

The promised vaccine is likely with a very small effect! Because antibodies produced by an infected person may last only 40 weeks (i.e., less than 300 days), shorter than the research & development cycle of a vaccine! In case the vaccine doesn't work, novel coronavirus will turn into flu as 10 to 50 times more deadly, with repeated outbreaks around the world.

A variant coronavirus named "VUI-202012/01" was reported by British scientists on December 14, 2020. The next question is: will the variant virus render existing vaccines ineffective? The WHO said that another more severe pandemic is likely to spread in the future. "The next pandemic is possibly more severe" and "the novel coronavirus is likely to survive and continue to affect the global population. Vaccination cannot guarantee eradication of the epidemic." (By Mike Ryan at the final press conference of the WHO on December 28, 2020)

It seems more likely that we will come back each year later. Even if it does not come for a while, you will need to spend a lot of money and resources to protect against us, and you will live in a state of fear in the future.

It is the instinct of humans to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, and so do all the creatures. The pursuit of benefits will enable organisms to acquire a stronger ability to survive, and the avoidance of harm will enable individuals to continue their lives, thus ensuring the continuation of species. However, your perception of "benefits" and "harms" is too narrow. Your interests are not concerned with the harm to other creatures, in other words, your human interests are based on the destruction of other creatures, which is causing your ethical system to collapse. This allowed us to attack. Please don't forget that the truth of the world is "discomforting and mysterious." (By Nietzsche)

5. Can technology truly help you?

The rise of "the Anthropocene" represents a challenge to the natural system, a retreat of natural human civilization and its system of spiritual expression. In this process, "technology governance" plays an important role. Sages of mankind have long seen the nature of modern technology as "poetic and cold...The nature of modern technology determines that the endpoint of this form of presentation is danger" (by Heidegger). How does modern technology present itself? How can people be complacent about their technological inventions? It is said that technological innovation will be accelerated after each pandemic. Let’s see your new inventions!

The emergence of robots: COVID-19 has raised new concerns about physical contact in some industries which are hard to keep social distancing, such as retail, hotel catering or warehousing. One solution is to replace manual labour with robots. During the outbreak, companies have accelerated the use of machines that can check-in guests at hotels slice salads at restaurants or collect money at toll booths. Online shopping developed even further. These innovations will increase economic productivity, while it also means that when it becomes safe for people to go back to work, some jobs will not exist. The longer people are out of work, the more job skills are likely to degenerate, as a phenomenon, many economists regarded as "unemployment hysteresis".

Remote working: Remote working suddenly became normality in those high-income groups. One study shows that two-thirds of the US GDP in May was contributed by the people who worked at home. Many companies require employees to work at home until 2021, while some companies intend to maintain a flexible-time work system forever. Work from home has largely passed the technical test, offering a new option for both employers and employees. It is a boon for companies to build new office infrastructures. Zoom Video Communication, Inc., a video conferencing platform in America, saw its share price rose by multiple times in 2020. The choice of remote working, coupled with the fear of catching COVID-19, has also induced urbanites to flock to suburbs or the countryside. In some countries, real estate prices in rural areas soared a lot.

Online travel: Some types of travel are close to a standstill. According to the United Nations, up to October, global tourism in 2020 plunged by 72%. McKinsey reckons that as meetings move online, a quarter of business travel may disappear forever. As holidays are upended and mass events such as festivals and concerts are cancelled, the trend for consumers to prefer "experiences" rather than commodities is disrupted thereby. Even if some activities do eventually resume, they may not be the same as before, as people become more conscious of their personal space and avoid going to crowded places. (Refer to "COVID-19 permanently changes the world economy on 10 aspects," Bloomberg News Website, quoted from Reference News, January 2, 2021)

 

Oh! This seems like a perfect "technological invention". One hundred years ago, people already predicted that "instrumental rationality will eventually spread to the whole society, forming a 'rational cage' to trap people and pursue everything with productive means that pursue maximum efficiency, and then the means themselves will become the end" (by Max Weber). Driven by "instrumental rationality", human’s eyes are fixated on efficiency, function, calculation and means, while the value basis of human existence is constantly collapsing.

Without the basis of human self-value, technological "progress" can only bring more sense of crisis and frustration to human beings.

Up to nowadays, the trend of COVID-19 is unclear, uncertain and unpredictable, while the direction of mankind is still in extreme confusion. Rather than relying on science and technology, it is better to enrich and enhance human nature, improve humans’ thoughts, morality and conduct, and curb cruelty to nature and disrespect to everything on earth. Only in this way is the best antidote for "self saving" and "saving others".

Frankfurt School and Rome Club put forward two ideas in the 1930s and 1970s: the small is beautiful, and the limit of growth. But, in the past few decades, all kinds of human development plans have become bigger and bigger, and the growth has become more and more limitless. So, how will we face this reality? what are the practical methods and legal suggestions? How to evaluate the small is beautiful now? where is the limit of growth in future society? How to save our mother nature? how do live in harmony with other creatures?

As a scholar, I am incapable of influencing decision-makers on the mode, goal and path of earth development in the future, but it does not mean that I will not retrospect and redeem myself and human nature. Why should man be above nature? Why are "powerful humans" so vulnerable to viruses? What causes humans to be so greedy? Is the updating knowledge-generating more and more inhumanity and irrationality?

As a scholar on studies of leisure phenomenon, I memorize what my Canadian colleague said: "Leisure as a problem, also leisure as solution". What is leisure? Leisure is related to the integrity of every individual life, avoiding the deformity, "it is to achieve the noble soul, let the knowledge guide the moral choice and behaviour, and lead to the real pleasure and happiness in turn", playing an important role in the construction and repair of human nature.

Therefore, "Leisure as a problem, also leisure as solution" can be understood as: there are problems in human leisure affairs at present. The deep reasons for all the problems are the distortion of human nature, the abnormal pursuit, the absence of virtue and the emptiness of spirit. Leisure is one way to solve this problem, which is to reply on moral virtue, the power of human nature, the principle of keeping quiet and a mental state of awe. Without leisure, we cannot see the "starry sky overhead", "losing morality" in mind. Only the ability to show high ideals by simple living and going far with serenity can change people from brutish nature to divinity. This is not only suitable for individuals and groups, but also the community with a shared future for mankind.

Oh,Humans, remember please: Nature is both gentle and cruel, but you can never say that it is evil. All beings in nature should share equal status and mutual respect; law-abiding and ethical, be generous and selfless, humble and magnanimous, to protect our natural mother. Unfortunately, aren’t these qualities exactly what human beings are in total lack right now?

 

References

[1] British primatologist Jane Goodall said the new coronavirus epidemic was caused by human's indifference to nature and animals, Quoted in Reference News, April 14, 2020.

[2] Carl Zimmer, The Viral Planet, Guangxi Normal University Press (Chinese version) 2019

[3] Daniel Defoe, A Journal of the Plague Year, Book Jungle.

[4] Engels, Dialectics of Nature, People's Publishing House, 1971, (Chinese Edition)

[5] If human beings don't go out, by Asahi Shimbun, April ,19,2020, Quoted in Reference News, April 21, 2020.

[6] Laurie Garrett, The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World out of Balance, Penguin Books, 1996

[7] Loneliness: The Psychology and Social Costs of Isolation, Harvard Magazine, 1&2,2021

[8] Ma Huidi, The View of Nature in the Chinese Cultural Tradition, Journal of Luoyang Normal University, No. 7, 2019

[9] Nature Is Speaking by The Conservation International Fund Made Video, 2015

[10] Our way out, Mark de Villier, Renmin University of China Press, Chinese edition, December 2012

[11] The coronavirus pneumonia gives the earth a chance to breathe by Daily Mail, Quoted in Reference News, April 5, 2020.

[12] The New coronavirus changes the world economy forever in 10 aspects, the website of Bloomberg News, December 30, 2020,Quoted in Reference News, Jan. 2, 2021.

 

①Environment and Sustainable Development: Nature is Speaking (First Volume) by Editors Dr. Anju Beniwal Dr. Deepak Maheshwari Dr. Purnima Singh


 

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